Bread, biscuits and cakes

Bread, biscuits and cakes

Leiths School of Food and Wine
46 recipes
Published by
Quadrille Publishing
Peter Cassidy

With enticing aromas and delicious end products, baking is one of the most satisfying experiences for the cook. Here we focus on sweet and savoury breads, cakes, traybakes and biscuits, as well as icings and glazes used to finish them. All the basic skills you need are covered. Once the techniques are mastered, there are endless opportunities for you to develop your own variations. For consistent success, it is important to understand the techniques and to follow the recipe carefully, measuring ingredients accurately, and to use the correct tin size and oven temperature.


Learning to bake even the simplest loaf can give huge satisfaction. The most basic bread is made with flour, water, salt and yeast. Strong flour gives structure and texture to the loaf, water binds and develops the gluten in the flour, salt flavours the dough and controls the action of the yeast, and yeast leavens the bread. The recipes in this chapter use fresh or dried yeast, and do not include sourdoughs or other breads made with a starter.

Bread is fairly simple to make and you will find the texture of the finished loaf will improve the more you practise the basic skills. It is important in all bread making, whether making basic or heavily enriched loaves, that the consistency or ‘feel’ of the dough is correct. The quantity of liquid added to the dry ingredients will always vary slightly depending on the moisture content of the flour and how you incorporate and distribute the liquid. Being familiar with the ideal consistency of the dough is therefore very important, and is something that comes with practice. As a starting point, it is worth remembering that a softer, slightly stickier dough is preferable to a firmer, drier dough, so add as much of the liquid indicated as you can without it becoming too sticky to knead or handle.

Don’t be put off by the lengthy rising and proving time in recipes; the actual hands-on work is often less than 15 minutes. Other timings are guides only, and a bread will not suffer particularly for being left at any stage for a while longer than outlined, if that fits your schedule.

The stages of bread making

–Mixing combines the ingredients evenly.

–Kneading distributes the yeast evenly and develops the gluten.

–Rising allows the yeast to grow and multiply, producing carbon dioxide bubbles which cause the bread to rise.

–Knocking back is kneading the dough again after it has risen, to create a more even texture, by breaking down the larger bubbles produced by the yeast.

–Shaping gives the bread form and an even crust.

–Proving is the second rising. This allows the yeast to work and rise the dough again. The proving process usually only takes half the time of the rising stage.

–Baking the bread at a high temperature kills the yeast and sets the shape, and gives the bread colour and flavour.

Fresh or dried yeast?

The recipes in this section use fresh yeast, but this can sometimes be difficult to obtain. If using fast-action dried yeast, use a quarter of the fresh weight, adding it directly to the flour before the liquid. If using ordinary dried yeast, use half the weight of fresh yeast, dissolving it in a little of the warm water or milk to help it rehydrate before use. If in doubt as to whether your dried, or indeed fresh, yeast will work, leave the dissolved yeast mixture in a warm place for 10–15 minutes and it should start to grow and become foamy. This indicates that the yeast is alive and well.

The importance of gluten

For bread, unlike pastry, it is essential to develop the gluten in the flour, to give structure and texture to the finished loaf. This development starts when the flour comes into contact with liquid, and continues throughout the kneading process. As the gluten develops, the dough becomes elastic and smooth.

Flour used in bread making is generally strong flour, which has a higher gluten content. As gluten is a protein, this means the higher the gluten content in flour the higher the protein content. For the effect on gluten of using added ingredients to enrich bread.


Salt improves the flavour of bread and helps the gluten to develop, creating the characteristic chewy bread texture. It also contributes to the formation of a good brown crust. About 2 scant teaspoons salt is enough for every 500 g of flour; any more and the salt will inhibit yeast growth and the dough will rise very slowly.


The liquid most often used in bread, this should be just warm to the touch, or just above blood temperature, so about 37–38°C, when it is added. At this warmth, the yeast will start to work at once, so speeding the process and showing that the yeast is working. A high temperature will kill yeast, so the water must not be too hot. A lower temperature slows the yeast action down but does not kill it, so cooler water is fine to use; the dough will just take longer to rise.

Using milk, scalded and cooled to the correct temperature, in place of water, will result in a softer, more cake-like crumb.

Making bread in a mixer

Most free-standing electric mixers come with a kneading paddle attachment. Using a mixer is faster because the mixer is much more efficient at kneading than your hands. To make dough in a mixer, place all the dry ingredients in the bowl. Start the mixer on the slowest speed to ensure the dry ingredients are mixed within the bowl. Now add the wet ingredients, three-quarters to start with, then more as necessary. Once the ingredients have come together as a dough, you can increase the speed a little. It should take a further 5 minutes at about the same speed or slightly faster (the next speed up) to knead the dough. Test the dough in the same way as if kneaded by hand.

Kneading the dough

A thorough, vigorous kneading after mixing helps develop the gluten and will result in the necessary ‘chew’ in a well textured loaf. It also distributes the yeast throughout the dough, ensuring an even rise. It should take 10 minutes by hand or 5 minutes using a mixer with a dough hook attachment.

Rising the dough

The optimum ambient temperature for rising a bread dough is 22°C, ie warm room temperature, away from draughts and intense direct heat (for example on the top of the stove). Airing cupboards, if they are not too hot, are ideal. The dough should double in size in approximately 1 hour for most recipes; much faster than this, and the flavour will be impaired. Bread will happily rise in much colder conditions, even overnight in the fridge, but the colder it is, the longer it will take. Bread dough can also be frozen, and will rise once it has defrosted.

Rolls and baps

All the recipes in the bread section can be made into rolls. Allow 35–45 g dough for a dinner roll and 50–55 g for a bap. Allow to prove on the baking sheet and bake for 10–15 minutes. For softer rolls, cover with a clean tea towel as they cool.

Shaping plain rolls

1. Divide the knocked back dough into equal pieces and shape into balls. Take a ball and gently stretch and pull the dough towards the top, creating a smooth surface underneath.

2. Turn the roll over so the smooth side is uppermost, and neaten the roll with the sides of your hands. Shape the other rolls, working quickly to ensure the first ones do not over-prove.

3. Place the rolls on a lightly greased baking sheet, spacing them apart. Lightly pat down the tops to flatten a little. Leave to prove until at least half their size again, then bake.


Crown: Shape as for plain rolls and cut a cross in the top before proving.

Pawnbroker: Divide the small ball of dough into 3 equal pieces. Form each piece into a ball and place next to each other on the baking sheet to make a triangle.

Catherine wheel: Shape the small ball of dough into a sausage about 15 cm long. Coil the dough round from the centre, forming a catherine wheel.

Knot: Shape the small ball of dough into a sausage about 10 cm long. Carefully, without stretching, tie the dough into a knot. Try to hide the ends under the knot.

Pointed: Carefully roll opposite ends of the small ball between your hand and the table into tapered points. The points of dough can be gently twisted.

Baps: Shape as for dinner rolls, but flatten the tops of the rolls even more.

Bread finishes and glazes

There are a various ways to enhance the appearance of the crust, the simplest being a dusting of flour before baking, which gives a rustic, natural and soft finish. For shine and a rich colour, you can brush the top of the loaf with sieved beaten egg before baking and sprinkle with seeds too if you like. A milk glaze will give a softer crust and matt finish. Liquid glazes should be applied very thinly, using a pastry brush, avoiding any dripping, as this can cause the bread to stick to the tin.

You can also slash the top of the bread to give a rustic appearance, either before the bread proves (the slashes open and expand while proving and even more when baking), or 10–15 minutes before baking so they open up a little. Use a very sharp knife or single sided razor blade to make shallow cuts in the dough.

For a very soft crust, cover the bread with a tea towel as it cools.


Cake making requires precision. Weighing the ingredients correctly, knowing what to look for at each stage, careful preparation of tins, baking temperature and position in the oven are all important. Air bubbles are incorporated into the mixture during mixing and/or by using a chemical raising agent. Cake making calls for a light touch, so that the air bubbles trapped in the mixture are retained. Avoid over-mixing, which would make cakes heavy and tough.

There are 4 main methods of cake making: rubbing in, melting, creaming and whisking.

Essential ingredients

Fats: Of the various options, butter gives the best flavour for cake making. Unsalted butter is often preferred, but if it is used a small pinch of salt should be added to the flour to lend flavour. Although the flavour will not be the same, vegetable margarine is a good alternative to butter, resulting in a light and airy cake. Oils result in a dense, moist texture, which suits certain cakes.

Flours: Plain flour is the most common flour to use for cake making. Strong flour, with its high percentage of gluten, would not result in the same tender crumb, and is more suited to bread making.

Self-raising flour should only be used when specified in the recipe; it has an added chemical raising agent, baking powder. If a recipe calls for self-raising flour and you don’t have any, then plain flour with the addition of baking powder is acceptable. As a guide, use 2 level teaspoons baking powder to 225 g plain flour.

Raising agents: Cakes need air to rise and lighten them or they will be heavy and dense. Air can be incorporated in several ways, the more common methods being sifting the flour, beating or creaming air into fats, or whisking the eggs.

Bicarbonate of soda, or baking soda, is a chemical raising agent which releases carbon dioxide when it comes into contact with liquid, which is then trapped in the uncooked cake mixture. When the cake is baked the mixture rises and sets around the bubbles. Acidity enhances the carbon dioxide reaction, so baking powder is often found in cakes using some form of acidic liquid, such as buttermilk, sour milk or yoghurt, or cream of tartar.

Baking powder comprises bicarbonate of soda, an acid and a starch filler, usually cornflour, which helps to absorb any moisture and keeps the baking powder active.

A note on the temperature of ingredients...

For all baking, you get better results if the ingredients are at room temperature, particularly the eggs, so remove all ingredients from the fridge in time to ensure they come to room temperature. If this is not possible, you can bring eggs up to room temperature by placing them in a bowl of warm/hand hot water for 10–15 minutes, making sure the water is not too hot.

A note on assembling cakes...

If sandwiching two cakes together, you should sandwich the bases together. A cake made in a moule à manque (a tin with sloping sides) can be cut in half, filled and reassembled. It is traditionally served upside down, with the bottom uppermost.

Preparing cake tins

All cake tins should be greased to prevent sticking. Use either melted or softened butter or oil, and apply with a pastry brush to give only the lightest coating and avoid any fat from sitting in the corners. Non-stick cake tins do not need to be greased but it is still a good idea to line the base. You can line the bottom with either greaseproof paper that you grease, or with baking parchment, which is non-stick and does not need greasing.

To base-line round tins: For 2 tins, fold a piece of greaseproof paper in half and place a tin on top. Use a pencil to trace around the outside of the tin, then cut inside the line of the circle and trim to size if necessary. Brush the paper with melted butter. Lightly brush the tins with melted butter and place a disc of greaseproof paper in the bottom of each tin. It is essential that the disc is cut to size, as if it comes up the sides of the tin it will prevent the cake having a clean, neat edge.

For whisked cakes: Grease the tin and place a disc of greaseproof paper on the base, then grease it again. Dust with caster sugar, shaking it around the tin to coat it evenly, tap out the excess, then dust it with flour and tap out the excess.

To line a shallow rectangular tin: To fully line a tin (for brownies etc), take a piece of baking parchment about 5 cm bigger on all sides than the tin. Cut diagonally through the corners, about 5 cm deep and lay the parchment in the roasting tin, pushing it into the corners. The cuts made through the corners will allow the paper to overlap neatly and line the tin.

Preparing a tin for a fruit cake

1. Cut 2 discs (or squares) of greaseproof paper to fit the bottom of the tin. For the sides, fold a sheet of greaseproof paper in half lengthways, long enough to fit snugly inside the tin all the way round the inside. On the folded edge, fold up about 3 cm again. Then, using scissors, make diagonal cuts across the 3 cm depth of the folded border all the way along the paper.

2. Lightly grease the inside of the tin, place a disc (or square) of greaseproof paper on the base, then fit the long sheet around the inside the tin, with the border folded towards the middle of the tin. The cuts will overlap to allow you to line the sides of the tin neatly. Make sure the paper fits well into the bottom edge of the tin and trim the top if it protrudes too much over the rim.

3. Place the second greaseproof paper disc on top. Lightly grease the paper base and sides. As fruit cakes are dense and take a long time to cook, it is a good idea to wrap 2 or 3 layers of newspaper around the outside of the cake tin and tie them securely with kitchen string. This will help prevent the outside of the cake from overcooking.

Rubbing-in method

This technique uses the process of rubbing fat into flour (as for pastry), resulting in cakes with a crumbly, moist texture. It uses raising agents: bicarbonate of soda, baking powder or self-raising flour, which has raising agents already added.

Melting method

This method involves heating the fat to melt it before incorporating into the mixture, and results in a very moist cake. The dry ingredients are sifted and mixed with the melted mixture to form a batter. Not a great deal of air is incorporated during the process, so the cake is leavened using a chemical raising agent, such as bicarbonate of soda. Cakes made this way are fairly easy and reliable to make, and because they are so moist, keep well in an airtight tin.

Creaming method

This involves creaming or beating softened butter and sugar together until they are a pale colour and have a light consistency. The creaming helps to incorporate air into the mixture, but the cake is mainly risen by the use of self-raising flour, which contains a chemical raising agent. This raising agent begins to take effect as soon as it comes into contact with liquid, so working quickly once the flour is added is imperative.

All-in-one creaming

This is an easy adaptation of the creaming method in which all the ingredients are beaten together at the same time, which gives pretty good results.

Whisking method

This method involves whisking eggs and sugar together to create a mousse or foam into which you fold flour and melted butter (although the simplest versions contain no fat). Whisked sponges rise purely due to the air incorporated during the whisking process, so they are more delicate than creamed cakes and take a little more practice to perfect. You can either use a free-standing electric mixer, or a hand-held electric whisk and a bowl set over just boiled water. During whisking, the mixture should easily increase to 4 times its original volume and when ready it should fall from the beaters in a wide ribbon-like trail. A good folding action is needed to incorporate the flour.

Making a Swiss roll

This classic teatime favourite is made using a whisked sponge mixture and is best eaten on the day it is made. Once rolled, store in an airtight container, wrapped in its paper to prevent it from drying out, until ready to serve.

1. Line a 30 x 20 cm Swiss roll tin with baking parchment or prepare a paper case: cut 2 sheets of baking parchment to a size 2 cm bigger all around than an A4 sheet of paper. Fold up a 2 cm edge on each side and fold and clip the corners with paper clips. Place this on a baking sheet.

2. Add 2–3 drops of vanilla extract to the whisked sponge mixture after whisking the eggs and sugar together. Spread the mixture into the prepared tin or paper case, smoothing it to the edges gently, to avoid knocking out the air. Bake for just 12–15 minutes.

3. While the cooked sponge is still warm, lay a piece of greaseproof paper on the work surface and sprinkle it evenly with caster sugar. Invert the warm sponge onto the sugared paper and carefully peel off the paper, using a palette knife to support the cake. Trim off the dry edges.

4. Make a shallow cut across the width of the cake (where you will begin to roll it); this helps to get a well shaped roll. While the sponge is still warm, spread it with 5–6 tablespoons raspberry jam and start to roll from the cut end.

5. Using the paper under the cake to help, continue to roll the cake up firmly and evenly. Leave the Swiss roll wrapped in the paper to set its shape.

6. To serve, carefully unroll the paper, dredge the Swiss roll with a little more caster sugar and cut into 1–1.5 cm slices.

Glazes and icings

A delicious icing, from a simple ganache to a more intricate affair, shows off your baking to best effect. These are a selection of the glazes, icings and fillings we use most often.

Jam glazes

Glazing a fruit tart helps to prevent it from drying out and retain its texture, as well as adding a beautiful shine to emphasise the colour and freshness of the fruit. Some enriched sweet breads are also traditionally glazed with a fruit glaze.

Use a cold glaze for fresh fruit and a warm glaze for cooked fruit. The amount of water you need to add to the jam depends on the jam. You are looking for a light syrupy consistency rather than a thick coarse texture, which would not look attractive on the fruit.

Apricot glaze, because of its pale and neutral colour, is very useful as a general purpose glaze and is best for pale fruits and breads, while a redcurrant glaze works well for red fruits.

Buttercream icings

We use 3 types of buttercreams: custard-, meringue- and mousse-based. Consistency and temperature are the important factors in making buttercreams. As a general rule you should always add a thinner mixture to a thicker one, as they combine more readily, and if either the butter or the base mixture is a little cool then you risk the mixture curdling. To avoid this, make sure the temperature of all your ingredients is similar, and at least at room temperature. Buttercreams must also be kept at room temperature; if chilled, they become too solid.


Chocolate is very sensitive to heat and can change from melted to scorched quickly over a narrow temperature range, making it potentially tricky to work with. Besides simply melting it for use in cooking, chocolate can also be tempered (which involves heating, cooling and reheating to specific temperatures) to give it a high gloss for use in chocolate work; this is normally the preserve of skilled chocolatiers. In these recipes, tempered chocolate is not required.

Types of chocolate

Those most commonly used in cooking are as follows:

–Dark (or plain) chocolate: When using chocolate in cooking look for one with 60–70% cocoa solids. The flavour will generally be one that most people enjoy, whereas chocolate with greater than 70% cocoa solids can taste bitter to some.

–Milk chocolate: With added milk solids and sugar, this has a milder, sweeter flavour. It is important to use a good quality milk chocolate for cooking.

–Cocoa powder: Use a good quality cocoa powder with a fairly intense flavour.

Storing chocolate: Store chocolate well wrapped in a cool, dry place, ideally about 17°C. If storing in the fridge, wrap it closely to avoid condensation. If the chocolate is stored at too high a temperature a ‘bloom’ will form on the surface, from cocoa butter rising to the surface. If this happens, the chocolate can still be used for cooking.

Chocolate that is not well wrapped can develop a sugar ‘bloom’. Condensation dissolves the sugar in the chocolate and then, when the moisture evaporates, leaves a white crust, or bloom. Again, the chocolate can still be used for cooking.

Melting chocolate

When melting chocolate there are several points to remember:

–If you are not using chocolate drops or buttons, chop the chocolate into small pieces, so that it melts evenly and quickly

–For small quantities (up to 250 g), half-fill a small saucepan with water and bring to a simmer. Remove from the heat and place the chocolate in a heatproof bowl that will sit on the saucepan without the base touching the water.

–For larger quantities, the saucepan can be left over a low heat with the water still simmering, but take care not to overheat the chocolate. It can become dry and crumbly and cannot be brought back.

–Let the chocolate soften, then give it an occasional stir to ensure even melting

–Avoid getting any water or steam in the chocolate or this may seize it, causing it to become grainy and harden into an unworkable lump.

–You can melt chocolate in a microwave. Use a heatproof bowl and microwave on 50% power for 30 seconds at a time, stirring the chocolate after each 30 second session. Milk and white chocolate can be melted in the microwave at 30% power.

Adding liquid to chocolate

Chocolate will seize if liquid is added as it is melting. If you need to add a little liquid, add it before the chocolate starts to melt. If you need to add a large amount, as a rule of thumb, add at least 15 ml to each 50 g melted chocolate and try to add the melted chocolate to the liquid, rather than the other way round. Also ensure the liquid is warm, as adding melted chocolate to a cold liquid can cause seizing.

Piping icing/chocolate

Piping calls for a steady hand. It’s a good idea to practise on a sheet of greaseproof paper first, so that the decoration is applied to the cake with a confident hand.

Making a paper piping bag

1. Take a piece of greaseproof paper, about 30 cm square, and cut it in half diagonally to create a triangle, 2 points having the same angle.

2. Hold the triangle with the 2 same points away from you, then fold them over each other. Work these 2 points, one behind the top point and one in front of it until all 3 points are in line.

3. Pull the paper tightly, then twist the points over each other 2 or 3 times to seal the cone. Snip a little off the pointed end, then insert a piping nozzle into the paper piping bag.

Simple decorations

We often use praline and nougatine to decorate cakes and desserts. They are both made by combining caramel and nuts – traditionally almonds, although potentially any nut could be used. The difference between praline and nougatine is that for praline whole nuts are used and toasted in the caramel, and for nougatine the nuts are crushed and toasted before being added to the caramel. Glucose is also added to nougatine to keep it pliable.

Covering a cake with marzipan

Lightly dust a clean surface with icing sugar and roll out the marzipan to a circle, about 20 cm in diameter, ensuring the marzipan is moving on the surface and not stuck, and there are as few cracks as possible around the edge. If the cake is not level, shave a little off the top.

1. If the cake is still slightly domed, shape a very small amount of marzipan (2–3 walnut-sized pieces) into a thin rope. Secure this around the edge of the cake with a little apricot glaze (to ensure the cake is flat, when turned upside down). Turn the cake upside down and lightly brush the surface (originally the base) and sides with 2–3 tablespoons apricot glaze.

2. Place the cake, glazed surface down, in the centre of the marzipan circle and, using your hands, carefully bring the marzipan up against the sides of the cake. Now carefully turn the cake over.

3. Roll lightly across the top of the cake and coax the marzipan down the sides with your hands to the bottom. Roll a jam jar or tin around the sides of the cake, to neaten and smooth the marzipan, ensuring the sides are straight and edges square. Trim to neaten, if necessary. Place on a suitably sized cake board and leave uncovered for at least 3 days for the marzipan to dry out. This prevents the almond oils from staining the icing.

Covering a cake with royal icing

The marzipan-covered cake must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 3 days before royal icing is applied.

The layers of royal icing are more easily applied in 2 stages for round cakes and in 3 stages for square cakes. The top is iced first and left to dry for up to 24 hours, before the sides are iced. On a square cake the two opposite sides of the cake are iced and left to dry, then the remaining two sides iced.

Before you begin, carefully lift the cake and place a generous teaspoonful of icing in the middle of the cake board, then lower the cake and leave to dry to ensure the cake is securely fixed to the board.

Applying the first coating

1. Spoon half the icing onto the top of the cake and, using a palette knife in a paddling action which will help remove bubbles, spread the icing over the entire surface of the cake.

2. Using a stainless steel ruler or long palette knife as a paddle, smooth the icing out, working it towards you then away. Start with small strokes and lengthen them gradually until the entire top of the cake is smooth and level. Draw the ruler or palette knife off the cake as level as possible.

3. Using an icing scraper, scrape the excess icing from the sides of the cake, working the scraper downwards with short, sharp strokes, without damaging the top. Allow the icing to dry for 24 hours before icing the sides.

4. For the sides, put the cake, on its board, on a cake stand or an upturned bowl. Using a palette knife, spread the remaining icing evenly around the sides of the cake, if it is round.

5. Using an icing scraper held at a 45° angle to the cake, try to turn the cake around in one movement in order to smooth the icing on the sides as evenly as possible.

6. Carefully scrape any excess icing from the top of the cake using a scraper. (For a square cake, ice 2 opposite sides and leave to set for 24 hours before icing the other two sides.)

The second coating

If the first layer is very smooth, applying a second layer may not be necessary. The cake can be brushed with a clean pastry brush to remove any crumbs before applying icing. Apply the second layer as for the first, but with a slightly thinner consistency icing.

To cover a cake with ready-made fondant icing

For an easy way to ice a celebration cake, you can buy ready-made fondant icing or sugar paste, in a block or ready-rolled form. It gives a good finish, but doesn’t have the same flavour as royal icing. The marzipan-covered cake must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 3 days before royal icing is applied.

1. On a work surface lightly dusted with icing sugar, roll out the fondant icing to a thickness of about 3–4 mm. Carefully lift the icing onto a rolling pin and lay it over the cake.

2. Smooth the fondant icing over the top surface of the cake and then down the sides, making sure you don’t create any pleats or folds.

3. Trim off the excess icing with a knife and neaten the bottom edge against the cake board, tucking the end towards the cake if necessary.

Icing special occasion cakes

Royal icing is generally thought to have a better flavour and to be more resilient than fondant, however it takes practice to achieve a really smooth result and bought fondant is much easier to use. If you are making a tiered cake, royal icing will support the layers better than fondant, although upright dowling rods are used with both types of icing to prevent the lower layer(s) collapsing.

Decorating special occasion cakes

Once the cake is fully covered, the icing will need to be left to dry (and harden in the case of royal icing) for a few days before the cake can be decorated.

Making intricate decorations for cakes is a specialist skill, but simple shapes can be moulded from fondant, or cut out from the rolled out icing, using suitable cutters (stars, holly leaves and Christmas trees for festive cakes, for example). There is a huge variety of food colours that can be kneaded into the paste to obtain the appropriate colour, and edible lustre sprays that can be applied to give a metallic or pearlescent sheen. A traditional royal iced cake is often finished with piping, using either white or subtly coloured royal icing for contrast.

Alternatively, a fondant or royal iced cake can look stunning finished with a simple, elegant arrangement of flowers or leaves. Of course, it is important to ensure that the arrangement does not include any toxic foliage or flowers.

Featured Recipes in this Chapter

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